Research Highlights: Why “immortal jellyfish” immortal? Scientists discovered hints


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Blue Planet Archive, Alamy Stock Photo.

Why “immortal jellyfish” immortal? Scientists discovered hints

  • Immortal jellyfish (Turritopsis dohrnii) has the ability to rejuvenate during its post-reproductive stage as a medusa.
  • Medusa is the free-swimming form of a jellyfish at which the shape is like an umbrella with tentacles around the edges.
  • The biological immortality of this jellyfish challenges our knowledge of aging.
  • Researchers compared genomes of T. dohrnii (immortal) and T. rubra (mortal).
  • Researchers identified genes associated with DNA repair, telomere, replication, redox environment, stem cell abundance, and communication between cells.
  • Researchers found that the polycomb repressive complex 2 targets were silenced.
  • Polycomb repressive complex 2 plays an important function during development, and it is responsible for maintaining the repressive states of many developmental genes.[1]
  • Additionally, researchers found that pluripotency targets were activated.
  • Pluripotency is ability of a cell to develop into the three primary germ cell layers namely ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.[2]
  • The research highlights these factors as important elements in the ability of immortal jellyfish to undergo rejuvenation.

Sources:

Pascual-Torner, M., Carrero, D., Pérez-Silva, J. G., Álvarez-Puente, D., Roiz-Valle, D., Bretones, G., Rodríguez, D., Maeso, D., Mateo-González, E., Español, Y., Mariño, G., Acuña, J. L., Quesada, V., & López-Otín, C. (2022). Comparative genomics of mortal and immortal cnidarians unveils novel keys behind rejuvenation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(36), e2118763119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2118763119

[1] https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/polycomb-repressive-complex-2

[2] https://www.nature.com/subjects/pluripotency


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Image Gallery: The Gas Work Park In Seattle, Washington


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The Gas Work Parks in Seattle.
The Concrete Railroad Trestle Arches in Gas Works Park.
The Concrete Railroad Trestle Arches in Gas Works Park.
The Gas Work Parks in Seattle.
Lake Union and Downtown Seattle seen from Gas Works Park.
The Gas Work Parks in Seattle.
The Gas Work Parks in Seattle.
The Gas Work Parks in Seattle.
The Gas Work Parks in Seattle.
The Gas Work Parks in Seattle.
The Gas Work Parks in Seattle.
The Lake Union seen from Gas Works Park in Seattle.
The Gas Works Park in Seattle.
The Gas Works Park in Seattle.

Image Gallery: The Fremont Troll In Seattle, Washington


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The Fremont Troll in Seattle, Washington.
Under the Aurora Bridge near the Fremont Troll.
The Fremont Troll in Seattle.


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Image Gallery: The Pike Place Market in Seattle, Washington


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The 1st Ave near Pike Place Market in Seattle.
The Pike Place Market in Seattle.
The Pike Street in Seattle, Washington.
The 1st Ave near Pike Place Market in Seattle.
The Pike Place Market in Seattle.


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Research Highlights: Frogs can grow more legs if infected with a parasite


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Image credit: Pieter Johnson, courtesy of Oregon State University

Frogs can grow more legs if infected with a parasite

  • Do you know that a frog can have more legs if infected with a parasite?
  • Parasites can change the structure of their host.
  • For example, some trematodes can cause limb malformations in amphibians.
  • Researchers examined the relationship between morphological abnormalities in amphibians and the abundance of trematode parasites infection.
  • The research covered parts of California, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and Montana.
  • Researchers studied malformations at frequencies ranging between 1 to 90 percent in nine amphibian species.
  • Researchers discovered that Ribeiroia ondatrae was linked to higher occurrence of amphibian limb malformations.
  • The parasite can be found mostly around the basal tissue of the hind limbs in infected frogs.
  • The malformations included skin webbings, more limbs and digits, and missing/malformed hind limbs.
  • Amphibians without the parasite showed significantly less occurrence of abnormalities.
  • The species that exhibited the highest abnormality frequencies include Ambystoma macrodactylum, Hyla regilla, Rana aurora, R. luteiventris, and Taricha torosa.
  • Water quality did not show significant relationship with the malformations.
  • The snail Planorbella were significant predictors of the presence of Ribeiroia infection.
  • The discovery demonstrated that Ribeiroia infection is the cause of amphibian malformations of the limbs in the western United States.

Source:

Johnson, Pieter & Lunde, Kevin & Thurman, Earl & Ritchie, Euan & Wray, Simon & Sutherland, Daniel & Kapfer, Joshua & Frest, Terrence & Bowerman, Jay & Blaustein, Andrew. (2002). Parasite (Ribeiroia ondatrae) Infection Linked to Amphibian Malformations in the Western United States. Ecological Monographs. 72. 151-168. 10.2307/3100022.


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Research Highlights: Remaining non-resistant pathogens after an antibiotic treatment may help control the growth of the resistant type


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Remaining non-resistant pathogens after an antibiotic treatment may help control the growth of the resistant type

  • Infectious disease practice calls for an effective drug treatment that quickly eliminates the pathogen before the resistant-type can emerge.
  • When the resistant pathogen is not present, this quick elimination strategy can lead to cure.
  • However, when the resistant pathogen is present, quick elimination of the non-resistant ones removes the barriers that controls the growth of the resistant pathogen.
  • Researchers developed a strategy which maintain a maximum tolerable population of the non-resistant pathogens, utilizing competitive suppression to gain long-term control.
  • Researchers measured the time required for resistant Escherichia coli populations to escape the threshold density produced by the effect of antibiotic.
  • Resistant E. coli without the non-resistant populations quickly escape the threshold density.
  • However, resistant E. coli that also has the maximum possible number of non-resistant cells could be controlled for a lot longer.
  • The increase in escape time happens only when the acceptable bacterial burden is significantly high.
  • This discovery confirms that maintaining the maximum number of non-resistant cells can help control the resistant type when the population size is sufficiently large.

Source:

Hansen E, Karslake J, Woods RJ, Read AF, Wood KB (2020) Antibiotics can be used to contain drug-resistant bacteria by maintaining sufficiently large sensitive populations. PLoS Biol 18(5): e3000713. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000713


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Research Highlights: New estimates of the number of human and bacterial cells in the body


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Image by Arek Socha from Pixabay

New estimates of the number of human and bacterial cells in the body

  • Do you know how many cells are there in the human body?
  • There were only few detailed estimation research that have been performed.
  • Researchers revealed the latest information on the number of human cells as well as the number of bacterial cells in the body.
  • For a 70 kilogram man, the new estimate of the total number of bacterial cells is about 38 trillion.
  • The new estimate for the number of human cells is about 30 trillion.
  • Additionally, the research updates the widely popular ratio of 10:1, suggesting that the bacterial cell number is in fact of the same order as the human cell number.

Source:

Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R (2016) Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body. PLoS Biol 14(8): e1002533. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533


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Image Gallery: The Space Needle In Downtown Seattle


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The Space Needle in Seattle, Washington.
Historical information about the Space Needle in Seattle.
Historical information about the Space Needle in Seattle.
Historical information about the Space Needle in Seattle.
Historical information about the Space Needle in Seattle.
Historical information about the Space Needle in Seattle.
Historical information about the Space Needle in Seattle.
View of Downtown Seattle from the Space Needle.
View of the Elliot Bay from the Space Needle.
View of Downtown Seattle from the Space Needle.
View of Downtown Seattle from the Space Needle.
View of Downtown Seattle from the Space Needle.
View of Downtown Seattle from the Space Needle.
Daddy long leg paintings on top of a building seen from the Space Needle.
Looking down the Space Needle.
View of the Elliot Bay from the Space Needle.
View of Downtown Seattle from the Space Needle.
View of the Elliot Bay from the Space Needle.
View of Downtown Seattle from the Space Needle.
View of the Elliot Bay from the Space Needle.
View of Downtown Seattle from the Space Needle.


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Image Gallery: Downtown Seattle In Washington – Piers and Waterfront


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The Seattle Great Wheel and the Miner’s Landing.
Alaskan Way in Downtown Seattle.
Buildings along the Alaskan Way in Seattle.
Downtown Seattle in Washington.
Pier 54 Seattle Dock in Downtown Seattle.
The Seattle Great Wheel and the Miner’s Landing.
Downtown Seattle seen from the pier area.
Downtown Seattle seen from the pier area.
Bainbridge Island Ferry in Seattle.
The Alaskan Way in Downtown Seattle.
The Enwave Seattle energy company in Downtown Seattle.
Downtown Seattle.


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Image Gallery: Approaching The Seattle Area In Washington State From Above


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Fox Island and University Place as seen from above.
Looking towards Manchester and Bremerton in Washington.
The Everpoint Floating Bridge, Lake Washington, and the University of Washington area.
The Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge over Lake Washington.
Flying above the King County International Airport, also known as the Boeing Field in Washington State.


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