Common Human Anatomy and Physiology Terms and Definitions


function msg1() { document.getElementById(“button1″).value=”anchoring junction”; } – are cell junctions that are attached to one another; attached to structures of the extracellular matrix

function msg11() { document.getElementById(“button11″).value=”apical”; } – refers to the top surface

function msg12() { document.getElementById(“button12″).value=”basal”; } – refers to the bottom surface

function msg13() { document.getElementById(“button13″).value=”blast”; } – word which means to produce, as in osteoblast

function msg14() { document.getElementById(“button14″).value=”bone cell matrix”; } – composed of collagen fibers and calcium phosphate salts

function msg15() { document.getElementById(“button15″).value=”calcium phosphate”; } – is a mineral found in the bone

function msg16() { document.getElementById(“button16″).value=”canaliculi”; } – are passages that allow blood and bone cells to communicate

function msg17() { document.getElementById(“button17″).value=”cardiac muscle tissue”; } – muscle tissue found in the heart which is branched and striated; it has dark line between cells which is called an intercalated disc

function msg18() { document.getElementById(“button18″).value=”cellular layer”; } – layer of periosteum where the osteoblast can be found

function msg19() { document.getElementById(“button19″).value=”central canal”; } – bone canal which the blood vessels and nerves can be found

function msg10() { document.getElementById(“button10″).value=”chondrocytes”; } – also known as the cartilage cells

function msg1a() { document.getElementById(“button1a”).value=”chondroitin sulfate”; } – is a chemical found in cartilage

function msg1b() { document.getElementById(“button1b”).value=”collagen”; } – is the most abundant protein found in the bones, muscles, skin, and tendons

function msg1c() { document.getElementById(“button1c”).value=”collagen fiber”; } – a fiber which gives strength

function msg1d() { document.getElementById(“button1d”).value=”columnar”; } – refers to column-shaped; as in columnar epithelium

function msg1e() { document.getElementById(“button1e”).value=”compact tissue bone”; } – tissue found on the surface of the bone

function msg1f() { document.getElementById(“button1f”).value=”cross section”; } – section which cuts across the short dimension

function msg1g() { document.getElementById(“button1g”).value=”cuboidal”; } – refers to cube-shaped, as in cuboidal epithelium

function msg1h() { document.getElementById(“button1h”).value=”dendrites”; } – part of nerve cell that receives stimulus

function msg1i() { document.getElementById(“button1i”).value=”differentiation”; } – the process by which undifferentiated cell becomes more specific type of cell

function msg1j() { document.getElementById(“button1j”).value=”ectoderm”; } – early development tissue that differentiate into nerve cells, neuroglial cell, brain, spinal cord, nerves, epidermis of skin

function msg1k() { document.getElementById(“button1k”).value=”elastic fiber”; } – a biological fiber that provides elasticity

function msg1l() { document.getElementById(“button1l”).value=”endoderm”; } – early development tissue that differentiate into internal linings of respiratory tract and digestive system

function msg1m() { document.getElementById(“button1m”).value=”epithelial tissue”; } – body tissue with a free surface that acts as a barrier; composed of closely packed cells and has the ability to regenerate

function msg1n() { document.getElementById(“button1n”).value=”fibrous layer”; } – layer of periosteum made up of collagen

function msg1o() { document.getElementById(“button1o”).value=”frontal section”; } – section that splits the frontal and the dorsal region; also called coronal section

function msg1p() { document.getElementById(“button1p”).value=”glial cells”; } – are cells that help and assist the activity of nerve cells

function msg1q() { document.getElementById(“button1q”).value=”Haversian canal”; } – the central canal in bone

function msg1r() { document.getElementById(“button1r”).value=”Haversian system”; } – also called the osteon

function msg1s() { document.getElementById(“button1s”).value=”histamine”; } – a compound which promotes blood flow and capillary permeability

function msg1t() { document.getElementById(“button1t”).value=”homeostasis”; } – regulation of a relatively constant internal environment in response to changes from the external environment

function msg1u() { document.getElementById(“button1u”).value=”internal environment”; } – compose of extracellular fluid (plasma, interstitial fluid); the environment around the cell

function msg1v() { document.getElementById(“button1v”).value=”lacunae”; } – bone cavity where osteocytes can be found

function msg1w() { document.getElementById(“button1w”).value=”lamellae”; } – the matrix of the bone

function msg1x() { document.getElementById(“button1x”).value=”longitudinal section”; } – section which cuts down the longest dimension

function msg1y() { document.getElementById(“button1y”).value=”mast cell”; } – white blood cell that releases histamine and causes inflammation

function msg1z() { document.getElementById(“button1z”).value=”mesoderm”; } – early development tissue that differentiate into kidney, liver, muscles, and bones

function msg111() { document.getElementById(“button111″).value=”microvilli”; } – minute projections from the surface of some cells which increases the surface area and can be found in digestive tracts

function msg112() { document.getElementById(“button112″).value=”midsagittal section”; } – section that splits right and left region equally

function msg113() { document.getElementById(“button113″).value=”mitosis”; } – is the process of cell division

function msg114() { document.getElementById(“button114″).value=”monocytes”; } – while blood cells that give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells

function msg115() { document.getElementById(“button115″).value=”nerve fibers”; } – also called the axon of nerve cells

function msg116() { document.getElementById(“button116″).value=”organ”; } – group tissues that has a specific function such as heart or lungs

function msg117() { document.getElementById(“button117″).value=”organ system”; } – group of organs that work together to perform a specific function such as skeletal system or muscular system

function msg118() { document.getElementById(“button118″).value=”organism”; } – group of organ system working together for common function such as human or an animal

function msg119() { document.getElementById(“button119″).value=”osteoblast”; } – a bone cell responsible for production of bone tissue matrix; involves in bone growth, repair, and remodeling

function msg120() { document.getElementById(“button120″).value=”osteoclast”; } – bone cell responsible for breaking down of bone tissue

function msg121() { document.getElementById(“button121″).value=”osteocyte”; } – bone cell responsible for the maintenance of bone tissue

function msg122() { document.getElementById(“button122″).value=”osteon”; } – unit structure of thick compact bone tissue

function msg123() { document.getElementById(“button123″).value=”osteoprogenitor cell”; } – the bone stem cell which differentiate into osteoblast and osteocyte

function msg124() { document.getElementById(“button124″).value=”parasagittal section”; } – section that splits right and left regions unequally

function msg125() { document.getElementById(“button125″).value=”periosteum”; } – a dense layer of vascular connective tissue surrounding the bones except at the surfaces of the joints

function msg126() { document.getElementById(“button126″).value=”phagocytosis”; } – the process of engulfing materials and bacteria by a cell

function msg127() { document.getElementById(“button127″).value=”pseudostratified”; } – refers to a single layer but looks many, as in pseudostratified epithelium

function msg128() { document.getElementById(“button128″).value=”red bone marrow”; } – bone marrow responsible for the production of red blood cell and white blood cell

function msg129() { document.getElementById(“button129″).value=”sagittal section”; } – section that splits the right and left regions

function msg130() { document.getElementById(“button130″).value=”secretion”; } – the process of releasing substances by a cell into the internal environment or into body cavities or ducts

function msg131() { document.getElementById(“button131″).value=”simple”; } – refers to one layer, as in simple squamous epithelium

function msg132() { document.getElementById(“button132″).value=”skeletal muscle tissue”; } – muscle tissue which is striated and voluntary

function msg1qq() { document.getElementById(“button1qq”).value=”smooth muscle tissue”; } – muscle tissue which is not branched in appearance but has a spindle-shaped structure; also called involuntary muscle tissue

function msg133() { document.getElementById(“button133″).value=”spongy bones”; } – also called cancellous which is located within bones; consist of branching plates called trabeculae

function msg134() { document.getElementById(“button134″).value=”squamous”; } – refers to flat, as in simple squamous epithelium

function msg135() { document.getElementById(“button135″).value=”stereocilia”; } – mechano-sensing organelles of hair cells found in inner ear

function msg136() { document.getElementById(“button136″).value=”stratified”; } – refers to many layers, as in stratified epithelium

function msg137() { document.getElementById(“button137″).value=”tissue”; } – group of cells that perform a specific function

function msg138() { document.getElementById(“button138″).value=”trabeculae”; } – the branching plates found in spongy bones

function msg139() { document.getElementById(“button139″).value=”transitional epithelium”; } – epithelium that can be stretched and unstretched; found in the linings of urinary bladder and ureters

function msg140() { document.getElementById(“button140″).value=”transverse section”; } – section that splits the upper from lower regions; also called cross section

function msg141() { document.getElementById(“button141″).value=”yellow bone marrow”; } – bone marrow made up of fats

function msg142() { document.getElementById(“button142″).value=”zygote”; } – a cell that results from the fusion of sperm cell and ovum

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