We previously demonstrated that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid are 300 times higher than those in the plasma of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Here we explored whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 can be synthesized by periodontal soft tissue cells. We also investigated which of the two main kinds of hydroxylases, CYP27A1 and CYP2R1, is the key 25-hydroxylase in periodontal soft tissue cells.
Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells from 5 individual donors were established. CYP27A1 mRNA, CYP2R1 mRNA and CYP27A1 protein were detected in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, whereas CYP2R1 protein was not. After incubation with the 25-hydroxylase substrate vitamin D3, human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells generated detectable 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 that resulted in the production of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Specific knockdown of CYP27A1 in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells using siRNA resulted in a significant reduction in both 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production. Knockdown of CYP2R1 did not significantly influence 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 synthesis. Sodium butyrate did not influence significantly CYP27A1 mRNA expression; however, interleukin-1β and
The activity of 25-hydroxylase was verified in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, and CYP27A1 was identified as the key 25-hydroxylase in these cells.
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Date Published: 12-December-2012
Author(s): Liu K., Meng H., Hou J.